Be done with diapers without making yourself or your kid crazy. We've got the potty training boot camp itinerary and the best potty training tips to get there. Plus, we'll show you how to handle the four most common potty-resistant personalities.

By Ari Brown, M.D.

Chances are if you have a toddler, you have changed at least 5,000 diapers so far -- and you likely have another 2,400 more to go. And by now you're probably wondering when your child will ever decide it's time to use the potty. As a pediatrician, I'm asked about potty training all the time. Every parent wants to move past the diaper phase as soon as humanly possible. Unfortunately, we can't check it off our list when it's convenient, such as when there is another baby on the way or when a child is starting preschool.

Don Diaz

There are two prevailing schools of thought about the right ways to approach toilet training. One is that children will make it clear when they're willing to be trained; the other is that parents should decide when it's time. Back in the 1920s, Mom and Dad ran the show and used strict, consistent routines to toilet train. In fact, an article published in Parents in 1929 proclaimed that most 8-week-old infants could be potty trained! (If it sounds too good to be true, it is.) The tide turned in the 1960s when the esteemed pediatrician T. Berry Brazelton, M.D., advised that for successful toilet training, a child should be developmentally ready rather than forced.

Based on 20 years of working with families, I side with the Brazelton, child-oriented approach. Being able to use the potty during the day is a developmental milestone, just like learning to walk and talk. (Night training is a whole other story -- see "Night and Day," on the next page.) And as with those other milestones, a child has to be willing. After all, no parent can make a child eat, fall asleep, or poop on the potty! It is much less stressful to wait until a child is prepared.

On average, healthy and typically developing kids will toilet train between ages 2 and 4. Girls usually start earlier than boys do. Are girls smarter? Being a girl myself, I'd like to think so. But a child's IQ has little influence on the age of toilet training -- it's really about body awareness and wanting to be clean. Perhaps boys just don't care as much about that early on. The bottom line: Toilet training is not a race. There are no parenting awards for achieving success early -- just the pure elation of kissing the diaper pail goodbye.

3 signs your child is ready

  1. Body awareness - He senses the urge to have a bowel movement and often hides behind the couch or waits until he's alone at naptime to do his business.
  2. A desire for cleanliness - She dislikes sitting in a wet or soiled diaper. She alerts you when she needs a diaper change.
  3. Muscle mastery - He can walk to the bathroom independently, pull down his pants, and sit on the potty unassisted.

Potty-Training Boot Camp

Toilet training takes a weekend. You just have to pick the right weekend! Once your child shows the signs, hang around the house for two days and focus on the process.

Step 1 On Saturday put your child in training pants. These are reusable, specially designed cotton underpants with extra layers of fabric between the legs. (Department and baby-specialty stores usually stock them in the underwear section.) If he has an accident in them, he'll definitely feel wet!

Step 2 If she is not intimidated by the potty, she can practice using it with her training pants off (or use a kid-size toilet-seat insert; both work well).

Step 3 Coax your child to listen to his body and sit on the potty when he knows that pee or poop is coming.

Step 4 Throughout the weekend, direct your child to the bathroom first thing in the morning, before and after naps, after meals, before bedtime, and every two hours if she doesn't already do so herself.

Don't punish your child for accidents, and praise success--that's the best reward. Your child does not need a new toy or a piece of candy every time she uses the bathroom! Bribery rarely works--the desire to be clean is what truly motivates a child to stop playing and go to the bathroom.

If by end of day Sunday your child still leaves puddles on the floor or couldn't care less about having numerous accidents in her training pants, she's not ready. Go back to diapers on Monday (or as soon as you admit defeat) and try again another weekend. She won't transition to the toilet any faster if you keep her in training pants. It only results in more cleanup and frustration for you--and a sense of failure for her.

If she wears training pants for the weekend and regrets having an accident or two, mission accomplished! She can wear them every day and graduate to big-kid underwear once she uses the potty regularly.

Here's my philosophy: It is a privilege to wear underwear, so save the pretty panties and the cool undies until your child uses the potty independently and rarely has accidents.

Night and Day

For nighttime success, your child's bladder size must be large enough to hold the urine produced all night long or his brain must be mature enough to awaken with the urge to go. Those milestones can happen months or years after daytime training. Roughly 15 percent of healthy 5-year-olds are not dry at night, and 10 percent of 6-year-olds still need overnight protection. A medical evaluation is in order only when a 7-year-old child is still incontinent at night. (For more on bedwetting, go to Once he wakes up dry for four weeks straight, try going diaper-free. Until then, you can stick with diapers at night.

Potty-Resistant Personalities

Most kids have a few false starts before they are successful. That's okay! I've noticed that the kids who have trouble tend to fall into one of the following categories.

The Absent-Minded Professor

This child is so involved in whatever he's doing that he ignores his body and the urge to go. He doesn't have enough time to get to the bathroom once he gets moving. Result: accidents.

Solution Use a kitchen timer or a watch that goes off hourly as a potty-break reminder. It's your child's responsibility to stop what he is doing and go to the bathroom regularly. Eventually, he will tune in to his body and go on his own.

The Control Freak

Some children would rather sit in a messy diaper and assert their power over the situation than go when and where they're told to go.

Solution Play it cool. Explains Allison Chase, Ph.D., a psychologist specializing in children and families, "It is important to take a step back and avoid getting in a power struggle. Learning to disengage is an essential parenting skill." Take away the diapers and put your child in charge of her pee and poop. She can also share the responsibility of cleaning up accidents. Use a kitchen timer or a watch as a potty reminder. The process is much easier when no one's fighting about it.

The Withholder

A child who had just one painful experience with constipation may never want to poop again. Every time he has the urge to go, he may attempt to hold it in instead of letting it come out. This becomes a vicious cycle and a self-fulfilling prophecy because holding poop in only makes it that much firmer, which means it's all the more painful when it comes out later.

Solution Set up a plan with your child's doctor. Docs usually recommend a gentle laxative for several days or even weeks to clean out the backed-up stool. A high-fiber diet is also critical for long-term success. A withholder needs to have a consistent pattern of soft, comfortable poops before potty training begins.

The Terrified Toileter

Some kids have real anxiety about the toilet. They may worry they'll fall in. Or the flushing sound may scare them. Or they may even fear a "toilet monster."

Solution Ask what she's afraid of. "Acknowledge the fear, no matter how outrageous it seems," advises Dr. Chase. Then try a gradual approach to the potty. Start by telling her that it's okay to wear diapers but that she needs to poop and pee in the bathroom. Next, let her wear training diapers while sitting on the toilet. (Since they have stretchy material on the sides, she can slide them up and down like underwear.) Once she does that willingly, go ahead and cut a hole in the center of the training diaper (a more comfortable next step for some kids than sitting on the toilet with a bare bottom). Ta-da! Her pee and poop end up in the potty and she realizes she will not fall in with them. For a kid with flushing fears, save that part for later.

Originally published in the October 2014 issue of Parents magazine.

Parents Magazine

Comments (3)

December 30, 2019
We took our just turned 3 y/o grandson to our lake cabin for PTBC! We followed the guidance of blogs and outlines knowing it was time and a new sibling 5 months ago delayed the process. We have no memory of potty training our 4 Kids so parents...relax. That said we took the process seriously and took away the seriously tall stack of pamper. Game on. Day one we were optimists with repeated disappointments. Lots of sitting cheering and encouraging with few results though no mention of diapers and no turning back. Day two a bit better and we were all getting the hang of this mantra “listen to your body and say when you need to potty” ( we made it into a rap, a poem, a dance, a cheer, a Prayer...) and each success (3 on day 2 out of a dozen or so visits) was met with the enthusiasm usually reserved for a touchdown. Slightly concerned by mid Day we returned to the bloggeshphere where moms and dads wrote of the bang your head against the wall moment when it feels like kid is winning and adults are fools. Hang on! We did and night 2 our underwaring boy was dry all Night and easily used the potty the next morning. Only one accident day 3! And then day 4: handoff to parents. We drove 3 hours to meet them and had to stop at a northwoodsy gas station rest room for his first ever road trip potty break. We were nervous wrecks. Off he went with my husband sporting his paw patrol seat liner on his arm - proud and mighty he marched passed the moose head and deer antlers mounted on the gas station wall. He had business to take care of and boom...he did. That was two days ago and no accidents and many successful potty trips later we are believers. Thinking of going pro. It’s not rocket science. If kid is ready, clear your calendar, lock the doors, stack up on overpriced training pants (made a huge difference) and don’t give in. Be patient, persistent and do what it takes. Incentives and stickers and prizes? Sure! You will be exhausted and over invested and wonder if this is the right thing. And then the kid pees in the potty and you are happy dancing like a maniac. Woohoo. Just be there and stay in the process as intense as it can get. You will Likely forget what happened anyway.
March 19, 2019
I potty trained my boy using this excellent method I found here
December 3, 2018
It was very difficult to potty train our kids but that all changed when we found Can really recommend it!