In a large pot bring vegetable broth, onions and peppers, barley, black beans, tomatoes, root vegetables, and salt to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, covered, for 15 minutes.
Garnish with cheese and cilantro. Serve with lime wedges.
Halve and seed 3 green and/or red bell peppers, cut 2 yellow onions into wedges and spread on a baking sheet lined with foil. Toss with 2 tsp. olive oil and 1/8 tsp. salt. Roast at 425°F until tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Slice pepper halves. Refrigerate up to 5 days.
Cook 9 oz. regular pearled barley according to package directions. Drain and refrigerate for up to 5 days.
Cut 2 carrots, 1 parsnip, and 1 sweet potato into 1/2-inch chunks and spread on a baking sheet. Toss veggies with 2 tsp olive oil and 1/8 tsp. salt.