Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to boil. Add cauliflower and cook 4 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon to a bowl. Add pasta to pot and cook 10 minutes. Drain, reserving 1 cup cooking liquid. Place pasta back into pot.
Meanwhile, heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add garlic and cook 1 minute. Stir in cooked cauliflower, 1/2 teaspoon of the salt, red pepper flakes and beans. Heat through.
Spoon cauliflower and bean mixture into pasta. Add some of the reserved cooking liquid and season with remaining salt.
To serve, tear in basil and stir in cheese. Top with bread crumbs.