Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add pasta and cook following package directions. Add broccoli florets during last 4 minutes of cooking. Drain and reserve.
While pasta is cooking, heat olive oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-low heat. Add onion and cook 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add Canadian bacon and vodka and cook 2 minutes.
Add whole tomatoes with liquid, tomato paste, salt and red-pepper flakes. Simmer, covered, 10 minutes.
Stir in half-and-half, 1/4 cup of the cheese and half of the basil.
To serve, toss penne and broccoli with sauce. Top with remaining cheese and basil.