Cook penne following package directions, about 10 minutes. Drain, reserving 1 cup of the cooking liquid. Transfer pasta to large serving bowl.
While pasta is cooking, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add garlic and cook for 1 to 2 minutes, until golden. Add broccoli and 1/3 cup water to skillet and cook, covered, stirring occasionally, for 5 minutes or until tender.
Stir beans into skillet and heat through. Add lemon juice, zest, salt and red pepper. Add contents of skillet to pasta. Stir in the remaining 2 tablespoons oil and enough reserved cooking liquid to create a sauce. Tear in the basil. Serve immediately with the cheese on the side. Accompany with a tossed salad, if desired.