Heat olive oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. When hot, add garlic and ginger, and cook until just fragrant, 2 to 3 minutes. Stir in plantain, yucca, sweet potato, bell pepper, tomato, and beans, and cook for another 5 minutes.
Add parsley, oregano, bay leaf, cilantro, bitters (if using), and sugar along with 3 cups water, and bring to a boil. Lower the heat and simmer until the beans are tender, 1 to 1 1/2 hours. Season with salt.
Garnish with fresh cilantro leaves. Serve with brown rice.