Beat butter and sugars with mixer or in food processor until light and fluffy. Beat in egg and vanilla. Transfer to bowl if using processor.
Sift flour, baking powder, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, black pepper and salt onto waxed paper. Stir into butter mixture. Stir in rind. Cover; refrigerate until dough is firm enough to roll, 2 hours.
Lightly butter 2 large baking sheets. Roll out dough on well-floured surface with rolling pin to 1/8-inch thickness. Cut into circles or other shapes, using cookie cutters. Using spatula, carefully remove to baking sheets. Refrigerate to firm, 30 minutes.
Heat oven to 375 degrees F. Bake until edges are golden, 8 to 10 minutes. Remove cookies to racks to cool. Makes 2 to 3 dozen cookies.