1. Heat oven to 400 degrees F. Pat the chicken dry inside and out with paper towels. Remove giblet package, if present. Being careful not to tear it, use your fingers to gently separate the skin from the breast meat and insert 2 or 3 slices lime under the skin along with cilantro. Place remaining lime slices in the chicken cavity, squeezing to release some of the citrus juice. Rub olive oil all over the chicken and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place chicken in a roasting pan or heatproof baking dish.
2. Roast, uncovered, for 35 minutes. Add cauliflower to pan or dish; sprinkle lightly with salt and toss to coat. If chicken is browning to fast, cover loosely with foil. Roast another 25 to 35 minutes or until an instant-read thermometer registers 170 degrees F. in the breast or 180 degrees F. in the thigh and cauliflower is tender, stirring cauliflower once more during cooking.
3. Remove chicken from oven and let stand 10 minutes. Sprinkle cauliflower with curry powder and toss to coat before serving.