Research has shown that up to 33 percent of women experience clinical depression or an anxiety disorder at some point during pregnancy. Yet some studies indicate that fewer than 20 percent seek treatment, and that treatment is often inadequate, says Healy Smith, M.D., a reproductive psychiatrist at the Women's Mental Health Clinic at New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. "The myth that pregnant women must be happy is still really prevalent," Dr. Smith explains. "Because of that, treatment providers may be less likely to inquire into a woman's mental state, and a woman might feel ashamed to bring it up."
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a policy statement in December 2018 stating that doctors should screen for depression during pregnancy in order to protect Baby’s health. "When we are able to help a mother deal with her mental health, we are essentially reaching the whole family," says statement author Dr. Marian Earls. "We hope to create a protective buffer for the baby while strengthening family relationships and well-being." The statement also says that women should be screened for depression after the baby’s birth – specifically when he reaches 1, 2, 4, and 6 months.
If your screening shows you have depression or anxiety during pregnancy, don't worry – there are safe ways to treat these common issues.
It can be tricky to diagnose mood disorders during pregnancy because "some of the symptoms can overlap with symptoms of pregnancy, such as changes in appetite, energy levels, concentration, or sleep," Dr. Smith says. "It's also normal to have some degree of worry over the health of the pregnancy." But if you experience persistent symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, especially if you're unable to function normally, get help.
Symptoms of depression in pregnancy include:
Being in a depressed mood most of the time for at least two weeks
No longer enjoying the things you used to enjoy
Decreased interest in the world around you
A sense of worthlessness
Thoughts of suicide
Getting too much sleep, or not enough sleep
The symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy vary by type of disorder, including generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive order, and panic disorder.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
Excessive worry that's difficult to control
Disrupted sleep patterns
Feeling restless inside
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms
Recurrent, persistent, intrusive thoughts
Compulsions to relieve those thoughts through repetitive thoughts or behaviors
Panic Disorder Symptoms
Recurrent panic attacks
Persistent fear of having a panic attack
Anyone can experience depression or anxiety during pregnancy, but women with these risk factors are especially susceptible:
A personal or family history of a mood disorder, such as depression or anxiety
A history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
Being a young mother (under the age of 20)
Having poor social support
Experiencing marital conflict
Being divorced, widowed, or separated
Having experienced traumatic or stressful events in the past year
Feeling ambivalent about being pregnant
Having a low income
Having more than three children
"There are well documented, but often overlooked, consequences of untreated depression and anxiety during pregnancy for the fetus and the mother," Dr. Smith says. Risks to developing babies whose mothers have untreated depression or anxiety during pregnancy include:
Premature birth (before 37 weeks)
Low APGAR score (which rates a newborn's health after delivery)
Poor adaptation outside the womb, including respiratory distress and jitteriness
Risks to the mother include:
There are several therapies that don't involve medication and are therefore considered generally safe for a developing baby. For women who need medication, there are low-risk options that can deliver real relief.
The following treatments have been shown to help pregnant women with mild to moderate depression.
Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in which a skilled therapist teaches new approaches to managing thoughts and emotions
Omega-3 essential fatty acids, which are found in foods such as oily fish and walnuts, and can act as a natural mood-booster
Light therapy, in which patients are exposed to artificial sunlight at specific times of the day to help relieve depression symptoms
Acupuncture, a Chinese practice that (in this case) involves placing tiny needles into areas of the body thought to influence mood
If you're currently taking medication for depression or anxiety, consult your psychiatrist before you stop. A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that "women who discontinued an antidepressant around conception had a 68 percent chance of recurrence of depression during pregnancy, compared to 26 percent for those women who continued their medication," says Stephanie Ho, M.D., a reproductive psychiatrist in private practice in New York City. Of those that relapsed, the majority had to restart their medication during pregnancy.
If you're pregnant and you're having depression and/or anxiety symptoms, talk to your Ob-Gyn or midwife. She should be able to treat you directly, or connect you with the appropriate mental health care provider. These organizations can also offer confidential help:
Postpartum Support International will connect you directly to a local coordinator who can help you find local resources, offer support, and give you tips on managing mood and anxiety disorders during and after pregnancy (www.postpartum.net).
Women's Mental Health Consortium maintains a database of mental health care providers who specialize in treating women; search using the key word "pregnancy" (http://womensmentalhealthconsortium.org/).
The MGH Center for Women's Mental Health offers credible information on the risks of untreated depression or anxiety during pregnancy, as well as evaluation and treatment options (www.womensmentalhealth.org).