Which Medications Are Safe During Pregnancy?
Getting sick when your pregnant can be scary, but your illness may not be your only concern. Many expectant parents worry what medications are safe to take during pregnancy. "One of the biggest things my pregnant patients are afraid of is ingesting something that may cause birth defects or negatively impact their baby's development," says Alane Park, M.D., mother of two sons and co-author of The Mommy Docs' Ultimate Guide To Pregnancy and Birth. "The truth is that most medications are actually OK, and while you want to minimize drug use as much as possible, the consequences of not taking a medication usually outweighs any potential risk."
To get relief and feel more at ease throughout your pregnancy, check out Dr. Park's recommendations for safe medications while pregnant.
What Pain Relievers Are Safe During Pregnancy
Along with rest, a cold compress helps relieve headaches during pregnancy, while heat can alleviate muscle pain. But if you need additional relief, your doctor may recommend acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol). Remember to talk to your doctor before taking any pain reliever. Medications in the NSAID class, such as Motrin and Advil, are often avoided in pregnancy due to the risks of decreasing in amniotic fluid levels in third trimester (which means less cushioning for baby and more pressure on its lifeline, the umbilical cord), says Dr. Park. Advil may also make a certain vessel in the baby's heart close prematurely and cause developmental issues in later stages of pregnancy.
What Constipation Medications Are Safe During Pregnancy
If you're feeling a little plugged up, blame it on a surge in the hormone progesterone that slows down your smooth muscle cells so your bowel movements aren't as regular. (Or blame it on your growing uterus for pushing on your intestines). Your doctor might give the green light for taking stool softeners and laxatives, like Miralax and Metamucil, or some over-the-counter magnesium. Also try upping your fiber intake by eating more fruits and veggies and drinking plenty of fluids. Exercise, with your doctor's approval, can also help to keep constipation at bay.
What Indigestion and Heartburn Medicines Are Safe During Pregnancy
Progesterone is at it again, causing heartburn by affecting your smooth muscle cells and relaxing the sphincter between your stomach and esophagus so acid comes up. (And your growing uterus is also pushing on your stomach to add to the heartburn.) For relief, you can start with Tums, but if reflux is significant, you might benefit from medications like Prilosec; talk to your doctor for more safety information.
You also can (and should) eat smaller and more frequent meals, stop noshing two to three hours before you hit the sack, and steer clear of rich, fried, or spicy foods, which often trigger stomach irritation. Sleeping on an incline can also prevent the contents of your stomach from splashing into your esophagus, causing heartburn.
What Can Pregnant People Take For Infections
If you have an infection, such as a UTI that calls for antibiotics, your doctor might prescribe Macrobid, Keflex, or amoxicillin. "There have never been any birth defects associated with the penicillin family or any other issues," says Dr. Park. However, the tetracycline and doxycycline families of antibiotics have been found to cause discoloration in babies' teeth after the fourth month of pregnancy, because these meds affect the calcification—or the hardening—of their pearly whites. "It's purely a cosmetic thing, but best to avoid those types of antibiotics," says Dr. Park. Certain types of prescription medications might also cause birth defects. At the end of the day, if your doctor prescribes any medications while pregnant, rest assured that the drug probably poses far fewer risks than the effects of an untreated illness or infection
What Can Pregnant People Take For Yeast Infections
Yeast infections are common during pregnancy, and while the condition won't harm the baby, the last thing you want to do is suffer through the itchy discomfort. "There is some absorption of vaginal creams into the body and blood stream, but doses are low and no studies show any affect on baby," says Dr. Park. She adds that some doctors don't prescribe the oral pill diflucan or fluconzaole because observational studies show that parents who have had to take extended doses for chronic fungal infections have had babies with birth defects. (Note that birth defects are only associated with "long-term, high-dose" use, according to the Food and Drug Administration). However, it's safe to take this oral yeast infection medication when breastfeeding, especially if you get the fungal infection known as thrush from your baby.
What Cold Medicines Are Safe During Pregnancy
Most pregnant people will experience cold or allergy symptoms, at least at some point. The safest way treat them is via non-drug remedies: Rest, drink lots of fluids—especially warm ones—and use a saline nasal spray to help relieve stuffiness.
If cold or allergy symptoms interfere with your ability to eat or sleep, it's normal to wonder, "what medicine can I take while pregnant?" But according to Dr. Park., "Pretty much all of the over-the-counter meds for the common cold are thought to be safe." Benadryl, Sudafed, Mucinex, Robitussin, Vicks Vapor Rub, and Halls cough drops are all okay.
One thing to keep in mind is that there are a lot of combination meds, such as Tylenol Cold, that treat multiple symptoms, such as a runny nose and cough and fever. But if the only cold symptoms you have are a headache and stuffy nose, why would you take a medication that also treats a cough? "Rather than taking meds you don't actually need, target only the symptoms you want to treat by buying drugs for each of your specific concerns," says Dr. Park.
What Can Pregnant People Take For the Flu
Since your immune system isn't as strong when you're pregnant, the flu can hit you a whole lot harder—and even lead to pneumonia or death in extreme cases. That's why it's so important to get the flu vaccine. However, if you've been exposed to and/or tested positive for the flu, doctors say it's important to take Tamiflu to lessen the symptoms and duration (it may be taken within five days of symptom onset). "Tamiflu is thought to be safe for pregnant people, and the risks of skipping it are far greater than taking the meds," says Dr. Park. "That's because the baby's temperature is always going to be a degree higher than yours, so if you have a high fever it may cause birth defects during early development stages and pre-term labor during later stages of pregnancy."
What Medicines Can Pregnant People Take For Pre-Existing Medical Conditions
Some medications, like the antihypertensive lisinopril and the mood stabilizer Depakote, have known safety risks in pregnancy and will need to be switched out for safer alternatives. Ideally, discussion of which medications to continue during pregnancy would happen during a preconception consultation with your OB-GYN or specialist. In general, it causes more harm than good to suddenly stop a medication during pregnancy, so discuss with your doctor before making any medication changes.
The goal is always to give the minimum dosage necessary to keep your symptoms under control, because there may be greater risks if you're affected by say, asthma or seizures, than by the effects of taking those meds on the baby.
I noticed that this information was originally published in 2004. It's pretty old and really should be updated. I'm currently 10 weeks pregnant and have spoken to my OB-GYN and genetic counselors about multiple medications. I have asthma and allergies and even saw my dentist a few days before finding out I was pregnant and had Arestin microspheres put in my gums between all of my upper molars due to my periodontitis. Claritin is definitely safe to take during pregnancy. I checked that out with three different doctors. Unfortunately, my allergies are quite bad and I have them all year long. I learned that the nasal spray I normally take along with the Claritin, Azelastine HCl, is a class C drug that should be avoided during pregnancy.Read More