The New York Times has published an in-depth report on the challenges that face teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as they attempt to get drivers' licenses. Citing a 2007 study that found ADHD drivers to be between two and four times more likely to have an accident than non-ADHD drivers, the report chronicles the problems teens with ADHD typically have with driving:
Researchers say that many teenagers with attention or other learning problems can become good drivers, but not easily or quickly, and that some will be better off not driving till they are older — or not at all.
The most obvious difficulty they face is inattention, the single leading cause of crashes among all drivers, said Bruce Simons-Morton, senior investigator at the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development in Bethesda, Md.
"When a driver takes his eyes off the road for two seconds or more, he's doubled the risk of a crash," he said.
Inexperienced drivers usually are distractible drivers. Dr. Simons-Morton cited a study on a closed course in which teenagers proved much more adept than adults at using cellphones while driving — and missed more stop signs.
The situation isn't helped by how "noisy" cars have become, with cellphones, iPods and Bluetooth devices, said Lissa Robins Kapust, a social worker and coordinator of a driving program at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. "Driving is so busy on the inside and the outside of the car — it's the most complex thing we do."
But A.D.H.D. involves more than distractibility. Its other major trait is impulsiveness, which is often linked to high levels of risk-taking, said Dr. [Russell A.] Barkley [of the Medical University of South Carolina].
"It's a bad combination" for young drivers, he said. "They're more prone to crashes because of inattention, but the reason their crashes are so much worse is because they're so often speeding." Many drivers with A.D.H.D. overestimate their skills behind the wheel, Dr. Barkley noted.
Image: Teen taking driving test, via Shutterstock.