First Aid Guide for Kids: How to Care for Cuts, Burns, Bites, and Other Accidents
From the moment your child takes their first steps, they're bound to have some tumbles. While you can't always prevent your natural-born daredevil from getting hurt, you can be prepared.
Start by printing a one-pager that lists any underlying conditions or allergies your child has and the medications and supplements they take (including dosage and frequency). Then staple it to a copy of their immunization record. Keep one copy in your purse, another at home, and a photo of it on your phone. In an emergency, these details could influence the medical treatment your child receives.
And when it comes to easing the pain in the moment? There's plenty you can do to make them feel better. We asked top doctors to share the best methods for patching up wounds, stocking a first-aid kit, and calming little patients—so you can fix any boo-boo fast!
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When Your Child Bumps Their Head
Do wrap an ice pack or a bag of frozen vegetables in a thin towel and hold it against the area to reduce swelling. You can also offer acetaminophen for pain. As long as your child seems like their usual self, just watch them for changes in symptoms or behavior. "Rest is part of the treatment for a concussion, and most young children will need some after even a minor head injury," says Ethan Wiener, M.D., director of the division of pediatric emergency medicine at NYU Langone Health, in New York City.
Don't give ibuprofen to a child with a head injury. The drug might increase bleeding, which can be dangerous when there's the potential risk (even if it's a super-slight one) of a brain injury.
Get help if you're concerned about your child's behavior—take them to the doctor or the emergency room to have them examined. "You know your child best," Dr. Wiener says. "Always get him checked if you are worried." And call 911 if your child is unconscious for any length of time. The same rule applies if they experience persistent nausea or vomiting, double or blurred vision, numbness or tingling in an extremity, or confusion or dizziness. Once you get to the hospital, a doctor will make sure that there's no swelling or bleeding in the brain and evaluate your child for a possible concussion, says Michael Carius, M.D., an emergency physician in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and former president of the American College of Emergency Physicians.
What to Do for a Nosebleed
Do have your kid tilt their head forward slightly, and then use a towel or a wad of tissue to pinch their nose tightly just below the nasal bone. Squirting just a little Afrin Original Nasal Spray into each nostril could help too. Hold this position for ten to 15 minutes to try to stop the bleeding. Be patient! "You need to do this for longer than you think, so set a phone timer," suggests Christopher Hogrefe, M.D., clinical associate professor of emergency medicine at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, in Iowa City. An hour or so after the nosebleed stops and a clot forms, you can dab Vaseline on the inside of the nostril to keep it moist.
Don't allow your child to lean back. If they do, blood could go down their throat and into their stomach, which can make them throw up. Discourage them from blowing their nose for several hours, as even a short, gentle blow can trigger the bleeding again. Don't stuff tissue or cotton up their nostril either!
Get help if the bleeding doesn't stop within 30 minutes or if your kid's nose looks out of place and you suspect that it's broken; head to the E.R.
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How to Care for a Burn
Do hold the area under a cool tap for ten to 15 minutes to cool the skin, ease pain, and halt inflammation, says Seth Podolsky, M.D., chief medical officer for ambulatory and integration at Banner Health, in Phoenix, Arizona. (For the next 24 to 48 hours, you can repeat this process as much as needed, or substitute ice wrapped in a towel.) Next, apply an antibiotic ointment such as bacitracin to soothe the burn and help skin cells regenerate, Dr. Carius says. If you think your child is still in pain, you can also give them acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But if a blister forms, let it be: That bubble is a barrier that helps prevent infection. Once the blister pops on its own, apply an antibiotic ointment and a clean bandage.
Don't use vitamin E or butter—both of these can be irritating. And never place ice directly on a burn; doing so can cause tissue damage.
Get help if your child's skin looks very angry, splotchy, wet, or waxy, or if they can't move it. They may have a severe burn that requires prompt medical attention. You should also go straight to the E.R. or your doctor's office if they have any type of chemical burn (if, say, they got bleach or drain cleaner on their skin); if a burn is the size of their palm or larger; if it's on their face, ears, hands, genitals, or feet; or if it extends around their wrist or the circumference of another extremity.
How to Treat a Bad Cut
Do flush the wound with tap water and soap, dab on an antibiotic ointment, and put on a bandage. If you see blood through the bandage, then apply direct pressure for 15 minutes and elevate the injured area above the heart to stop the bleeding, Dr. Hogrefe says.
Don't clean a bad cut with alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or Betadine (an antiseptic). Alcohol stings like mad (which makes for an unhappy kiddo), and hydrogen peroxide and Betadine can damage skin, preventing healing.
Get help if a wound is large, gaping, or gushing blood. Your child might need stitches, so head to your doctor's office (provided your kid can be seen right away). Go to the E.R. if you see deep tissues, ligaments, or bone; if you can't stop the bleeding within 15 minutes; or if you think there might be a foreign body embedded. Don't wait too long: "If the cut is open for more than 24 hours, we generally won't glue or suture it, because then there's a higher risk of infection," Dr. Wiener says. Instead, most doctors will clean, dress, and bandage the wound; this is a safe route to healing, though it can cause slightly more scarring.
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How to Treat a Twisted Ankle
Do have your child sit down and elevate their injured ankle above the level of their heart with an ice pack draped over it, Dr. Carius says. Over the next 48 hours, continue to apply ice to the area for 15 minutes every hour. Ibuprofen can also help reduce pain and swelling.
Don't apply a heating pad or let them soak their foot in a warm tub for the first 48 hours. Heat can increase swelling and pain—not what you want!
Get help if your child can't bear weight on the injured ankle or if it looks deformed. Go to the E.R. or an urgent-care center. These are signs that it may be broken or dislocated rather than just sprained (when the ligaments are severely stretched).
If Your Child Is Choking
Do keep talking. If your child can answer you with simple sounds, their airway is clear, says Mark Morocco, M.D., clinical professor of emergency medicine at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center. If they can't respond, get someone to call 911 or dial it yourself and put the phone on speaker. Then do the Heimlich maneuver: Wrap your arms around your child's waist, make a fist, and place the thumb side of your fist against their upper abdomen (just below their rib cage). Now grasp your fist with your other hand and perform quick, upward thrusts until the item is expelled. (If your child is a baby or a toddler, pick them up, turn them facedown, and then use the heel of your hand to deliver firm back blows between their shoulder blades.)
Don't respond aggressively. "If your child is coughing but can talk, let him cough up the item," Dr. Carius says. Resist the urge to put your fingers in their mouth or down their throat.
Get help if their breathing seems strange or they can't speak normally after the episode—you should take them to the E.R. Always call 911 if your child becomes unresponsive.
This article originally appeared in Parents Latina's June/July 2020 issue as "First Aid Refresh."