Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the #1 most commonly diagnosed vaginal infection – more common even than yeast infection. It happens when the normal bacteria that grows in the vagina gets out of control and tries to take over. And though it's not technically a sexually transmitted disease, women who recently changed sex partners and those who have more than one partner tend to get BV more easily than other women.
Without proper treatment, having bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy can increase your risk of miscarrying in the second trimester and raise your chances of delivering prematurely. It can also lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.
Here’s what you need to know about these concerns, as well as the symptoms and treatment options for BV.
RELATED: Vaginal Infections During Pregnancy
The vagina is full of healthy bacteria, which balance each other out so that no one colony (group of bacteria) takes over. When the vagina is unhealthy or when the normal pH balance is disrupted, one or more colonies can grow in unusual numbers, while others can't grow at all. Infection occurs when a group of bacteria grows at abnormal rates.
Some women get BV more easily and/or more than once. Pregnant women generally have an increased risk, given the vaginal changes that occur while carrying a baby. Chances for developing BV are also higher for those who change sex partners, use feminine hygiene products like douches and sprays, smoke, maintain an unhealthy diet, or have immune system disorders.
If you're prone to getting BV, when you do get pregnant, you and your doctor should be on the lookout and will do proactive screening.
Only about half of women with bacterial vaginosis will have symptoms. They include:
Even though BV can cause a funky-smelling discharge and vaginal irritation, a lot of the time it causes no symptoms at all. Women may not know they have it until they have a routine Pap smear and their doctor sees BV indicated on lab results.
Doctors say that if there aren't any symptoms, a woman doesn't need treatment. In those non-symptomatic cases, most of the time, the woman's own immune system takes care of the problem and she eventually gets back to a normal balance of bacteria.
If she has symptoms, however, or if she's had a few other BV-related complications (specifically, preterm labor) her healthcare provider will order antibiotics to kill the over-populating bacteria and cure the infection. About 90% of the time, treatment with antibiotics is effective as long as every single pill is taken as directed. Sometimes women have to take more than one course of antibiotics before they get cured.
To get rid of BV for good, you might need to make some lifestyle changes and work on your immune system. That means eating well and exercising, getting plenty of rest, and keeping stress bombs from dropping on your life. Some women swear by probiotics (healthy bacteria taken in supplement form) for keeping all their lady bits in tip-top shape.
Some studies indicate a link between BV and preterm labor or miscarriage, and if the infection is really nasty and not treated, it can progress to become pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause infertility.
BV during pregnancy can also cause problems like premature labor, late miscarriage, and premature rupture of membranes – although these occurrences are also rare. If you're getting prenatal care, your doctor or midwife will be looking for signs and symptoms of infection.
RELATED: Miscarriage Signs & Symptoms
The bacteria themselves don't prevent pregnancy, but damage caused by an untreated infection can. The biggest concern regarding BV is that in some cases, the infection can travel up from the vagina to the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes and cause a painful condition called Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. If it scars and blocks the tubes, infertility or ectopic pregnancy can occur.
But here's the good news: it doesn't happen very often and it's very unusual for a woman to have that level of infection without symptoms. More often, she'll have an itch or pain that makes her go to the doctor for treatment long before the infection spreads.
Sometimes it takes more than one round or type of antibiotic to really knock it out, but for most women, that’s all it takes to get their vaginal bacteria back in proper running order.
RELATED: What is Infertility?
If you're worried about BV causing infertility, here are some recommendations: