A: There are a multitude of reasons why a couple has trouble conceiving, and it can be a problem with either the female or the male partner. Men can have many types of problems with their sperm, ranging from bad swimmers (called poor motility), bad-shaped heads (called poor morphology), low numbers of normal sperm (called oligiospermia, which is reported as a percentage), or no sperm at all (called aspermia). Men can have these disorders from environmental factors or from certain genetic mutations that can go undiagnosed until infertility, so genetic testing can be done based on semen analysis results. Women can have infertility for two general reasons: hormonal (irregularity or no ovulation) or anatomical (uterine abnormalities, tubal abnormalities, or ovarian abnormalities). Basic hormonal bloodwork and a pelvic ultrasound are needed to determine what may be the cause of infertility.