The first time your toddler slaps your face or chomps on your shoulder, you may wonder, Where did I go wrong? It can be shocking to see your usually sweet child push, knock, or bite his way around the playground. But before you beat yourself up over such behavior, you should know that hitting and biting at this age are typically not malicious -- your 1-year-old simply isn’t aware that his actions hurt others. Aggressive acts are a normal (and thankfully temporary) part of development. They almost always stem from a toddler’s natural curiosity and lack of language skills.
“Biting is common because toddlers are in an oral stage -- they explore the world around them with their mouths,” explains Patricia Mikell, assistant director of Graham Windham Manhattan Mental Health Center and a child therapist in New York City. “Toddlers are also exerting their independence now, and some kids express their willfulness by hitting others.”
Why Toddlers Strike
It’s not clear where toddlers get the idea to hit; even the most affectionate parents have kids who sometimes lash out. The habit may be largely due to their natural impulsiveness and trouble regulating emotions. Some kids are simply more short-tempered than others. And certain tots may learn to bite from relatives or caregivers who give nibbles for fun.
Your child may also hit or bite simply because she can and she revels in practicing the new skill. If she’s ever received positive reinforcement for aggressive behavior -- whether in the form of the toy she was vying for or a chuckle from you -- she may continue to bully for the potential payoff. And unlike a 2-year-old who’s adept at declaring, “No, I’m not tired!” your toddler may thrash her arms or sink her teeth into you to protest naptime. “One-year-olds haven’t yet mastered the power of language,” Mikell says.
Aggressive behaviors are more common in group settings, where conflicts are more likely to arise, says Kurt Fischer, Ph.D., a professor of human development at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. A dispute between two toddlers over a toy, for instance, can easily escalate into a physical fight. “If young children are interacting a lot, such as at day care, hitting and biting become social skills and a part of their survival instinct,” he explains. Distraction is key to heading off any tiffs between toddlers.