Friday, May 9th, 2014
A new study presented to the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) this week reports that 18 percent of Ivy League college students admit to misusing stimulant drugs like Adderall (an ADHD medication) at least once to help them power through a rigorous homework or test-preparation situation. The study further found that a third of those students who used the drugs said they didn’t consider their actions tantamount to “cheating.” More from Boston.com:
Researchers at Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York surveyed 616 sophomores, juniors and seniors who were not known to have ADHD who attended an undisclosed Ivy League school. Sixty-nine percent of those surveyed said they took the medication to write an essay, 66 percent said they took it to study for a test, while 27 percent took the drugs before an exam, the study found.
Twenty-four percent of students at the college reported use of these drugs at least eight times, the study found. Those who were involved in extracurricular activities, sports, or are part of a fraternity or sorority were more likely to use stimulants.
“While many colleges address alcohol and illicit drug abuse in their health and wellness campaigns, most have not addressed prescription stimulant misuse for academic purposes,” Dr. Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York and lead author of the study said in a statement. “Because many students are misusing prescription stimulants for academic, not recreational purposes, colleges must develop specific programs to address this issue.”
An estimated 40 percent believed using the drugs to enhance their academic performance is unethical, while 33 percent of the students did not see a problem with it. A quarter of the students surveyed were undecided.
The study did not assess whether the students found the practice to be dangerous to their health. Common side effects of misusing stimulant drugs include headaches, dizziness, chest pains and panic attacks. A report released August 2013 by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration found emergency room visits for nonmedical use of stimulants among 18 to 34-year-olds tripled between 2005 and 2011.
Image: Stressed college student, via Shutterstock
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Friday, May 31st, 2013
Stimulant medications that are prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not predictors of later drug abuse by children, a new report based on more than 20 years of previous research has found. The news will come as a relief to parents who might have concerns about their pediatricians’ ADHD treatment plan. The New York Times has more:
The paper, written by three researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, examined data from 15 previous studies on the subject and determined that, on average, medications like Adderall and Ritalin had no effect one way or the other on whether children abused alcohol, marijuana, nicotine or cocaine later in life.
A 2003 study in the journal Pediatrics had concluded that the introduction of stimulant medication to children with A.D.H.D. reduced the risk of such abuse later in life, a finding that has been repeated by doctors and pharmaceutical companies not only to assuage parents’ fears of medication but also to suggest that the pills would protect their children from later harm.
“I always doubted the whole ‘protection’ argument, and I wasn’t the only one, but that message was really out there,” said Liz Jorgensen, an adolescent addiction specialist at Insight Counseling in Ridgefield, Conn. “Hopefully, this message will be heard loud and clear.”
The study comes amid growing concern about the persistent rise in A.D.H.D. diagnoses and prescriptions for medication among children. A recent New York Times analysis of data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 11 percent of all children ages 4 through 17 — 6.4 million over all — had received a diagnosis of A.D.H.D. from a medical professional. The diagnosis rate rose to 19 percent for boys of high school age.
Stimulant medication is by far the most prevalent treatment for childhood A.D.H.D., with the vast majority of children at least trying medication and about 60 percent of them staying on it long term. Stimulants can drastically improve the lives of children with severe A.D.H.D. but are also increasingly abused by high school and college students for their jolts of focus toward schoolwork.
Side effects can include appetite and growth suppression, sleep disturbance and occasionally psychosis, especially when the stimulants are abused.
The paper released Wednesday in the journal JAMA Psychiatry analyzed data from studies conducted from 1980 to 2012, and included more than 2,500 children with A.D.H.D. from the United States, Canada and Germany. They were followed from an average age of 8 into young adulthood.
Image: Prescription medications, via Shutterstock
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