Posts Tagged ‘ infant vaccines ’

AAP: Vaccinate At-Risk Infants, Kids Against Meningitis

Monday, July 28th, 2014

Infants and children who are at particular risk of contracting the serious infection called meningitis should receive a vaccine at an early age and receive routine vaccinations through their college-aged years, according to an updated recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the largest organization of pediatricians in the United States.

The update is the first time the group has made a statement on “meningococcal” vaccines since 2011, and it notes that since its last update, three such vaccines have been approved for use in infants.  Though the guidelines don’t urge the vaccines for every young child (the current standard of care is to begin vaccination at age 11), they do recommend early vaccination for children aged 2 months and older who have immune deficiencies, are missing spleens, or have sickle cell disease or other higher infection risks.

More from HealthDay.com:

“We needed to have new recommendations so that pediatricians would understand how to use these vaccines in young infants and children, since they’re now available,” said guidelines author Dr. Michael Brady, associate medical director at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

“We’re telling pediatricians that we don’t feel it’s necessary to give this vaccination routinely to young children,” he added, “but for children with select risks, it’s a good vaccine to give.”

The updated meningococcal recommendations are published online July 28 in the journal Pediatrics.

Meningococcal disease is linked to a variety of infections, including meningitis and pneumonia. Meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord, strikes between 800 and 1,200 people in the United States each year, according to the National Meningitis Association.

Image: Infant vaccine, via Shutterstock

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Delaying Measles Vaccine Might Increase Seizure Risk

Wednesday, May 21st, 2014

Though many parents choose to delay vaccines, a new study published in the journal Pediatrics is linking waiting until after 15 months of age to give kids the measles vaccine might put them at higher risk of developing seizures.  More from CNN:

There are many myths about vaccinations floating around the Internet, says Dr. Simon Hambidge. One that giving vaccinations too close together is unhealthy  has prompted some parents to request that their children receive vaccines on an alternate schedule, Hambidge told CNN in an e-mail.

Hambidge, an expert in pediatric vaccination with Kaiser Permanente’s Institute for Health Research Colorado, is lead author of a new study that examines the association between vaccine timing and seizures.

His team found that in the first year of life, there is no relationship between the recommended vaccine schedule and seizures. But delaying the measles vaccine until after a child is 15 months old may raise his or her seizure risk. The study results were published Monday in the journal Pediatrics.

“A number of people have claimed that a young child’s immune system is not robust enough to be given multiple vaccines, and that it is safer to ‘spread out’ vaccination,” Hambidge said. “There is no scientific evidence for this, and there is evidence that it is safe and effective to follow the current recommended schedule.”

This year has seen an increase in measles cases, with recent figures putting the number of cases at an 18-year-high.

Image: Baby getting vaccine, via Shutterstock

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Rotavirus Vaccine May Carry Small Risk for Babies

Wednesday, January 15th, 2014

Babies who receive a vaccine against rotavirus, which causes severe diarrhea, may face a small risk of a dangerous intestinal blockage, a new study conducted by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found.  More from NBC News:

But researchers for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say the risk is very small and vaccination is still worthwhile. Vaccination “is still very beneficial,” said Dr. Frank DeStefano, director of the CDC’s Immunization Safety Office, who worked on one of the two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Before vaccination was introduced in the U.S. in 2006, rotavirus sent about 200,000 children to the emergency room, put 55,000 to 70,000 in the hospital, and killed 20 to 60 children under 5 years old each year. Vaccination has made a dramatic difference, averting 65,000 hospitalizations from 2007 to 2009, according to CDC estimates.

Two rotavirus vaccines are licensed in the U.S., RotaTeq since 2006 and Rotarix since 2008. In 1999, another vaccine, RotaShield, was voluntarily withdrawn a year after it hit the market because of an association with intussusception, the “telescoping” of one segment of intestine inside another. The blockage that results can tear the intestines.

In a five-year study of Rotarix, DeStefano’s team found 5.3 extra cases of intussusception per 100,000 vaccinated infants. Less than one case would be expected per 100,000 unvaccinated infants.

In a seven-year study of RotaTeq, another group of researchers found 1.5 extra cases of intussusception per 100,000 vaccinated infants. Again, less than one case would be expected per 100,000 unvaccinated infants.

“I would call this a relatively small risk,” said Dr. Katherine Yih, a researcher at the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, who led the RotaTeq research. “It’s about one-tenth the additional risk of the original vaccine that was recalled in 1999.”

Image: Baby receiving vaccine, via Shutterstock

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Deadly Diarrhea Mostly Caused by Just 4 Germs

Tuesday, May 21st, 2013

Four germs have been identified by a new study as the causes of severe–and often fatal–diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, leading researchers to call for better dissemination of the vaccine against rotavirus, one of the four germs.  The New York Times has more:

Diarrhea is a major killer of children, with an estimated 800,000 deaths each year; it has many causes, and doctors want to focus on the most common ones to bring death rates down.

The study, financed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and published by The Lancet, found that the most common causes were rotavirus; a protozoan called Cryptosporidium; and two bacteria, Shigella and a toxin-producing strain of E. coli. In some areas, other pathogens, including the bacteria that causes cholera, were also important.

The study followed more than 9,000 children with diarrhea seen at clinics in Bangladesh, Gambia, India, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Pakistan, and, for comparison, more than 13,000 children without the disease. The children with diarrhea were more likely to have stunted growth and eight times as likely to die during a two-month follow-up period.

Diarrhea seemed to be linked to chronic malnutrition, which causes gut inflammation that can make it harder to digest food.

The prominent role of Cryptosporidium came as a surprise to the authors; it had been best known as a killer of adults whose immune systems were suppressed by AIDS.

In an editorial accompanying the study, other experts said rotavirus vaccine could save many lives.

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Chickenpox Vaccine Proving Very Effective Over Time

Friday, April 5th, 2013

The varicella vaccine, which immunizes against the virus that causes chickenpox, has been found in a new study published online in the journal Pediatrics to be highly effective after one dose, and even moreso after two doses.  More from The New York Times:

Before 1995, when the varicella vaccine came into widespread use, chickenpox affected about 90 percent of the population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations and about 100 deaths a year.

“Now a very safe vaccine will totally prevent it from happening,” said the lead author, Dr. Roger Baxter, co-director of the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center in Oakland, Calif.

Between June and November 1995, researchers began studying 7,585 children vaccinated between the ages of 1 and 2. They interviewed their parents every six months, asking about the occurrence of both chickenpox and shingles, the painful rash that can occur after recovery from chickenpox. In June 2006, a second vaccine dose was recommended, and the researchers followed those cases through the end of the study in 2009.

The analysis, published online in Pediatrics, found 1,505 cases of chickenpox, all except 30 of which were mild or moderate, involving less than 300 lesions. There were no cases among children who received a second dose.

Image: Infant getting vaccine, via Shutterstock

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