Friday, May 9th, 2014
The government-backed U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is now recommending that pediatricians apply a painted-on fluoride treatment to baby teeth as soon as they emerge, as a cavity-prevention measure. More from Reuters:
“Only one in four preschool children is seeing a dentist, but most see a primary care clinician,” Dr. Michael LeFevre told Reuters Health. “Primary care clinicians can play an important complementary role in helping dentists keep children’s teeth healthy.”
A family physician from the University of Missouri School of Medicine in Columbia, LeFevre chairs the USPSTF.
The panel declined to state how often doctors should apply fluoride varnish to infants’ teeth, saying research is inconclusive.
Pediatric dentist Dr. Mary Hayes welcomed the help from pediatricians, family doctors and nurse practitioners.
“It’s a good thing that dentistry and medicine are working hand in hand trying to attack decay in kids’ mouths,” she told Reuters Health. Hayes is an American Dental Association spokeswoman and was not involved with the new recommendations.
In addition to applying fluoride varnish to all baby teeth, the task force continues to urge doctors to prescribe oral fluoride supplements to infants who have not had fluoride added to their drinking water. Supplements come in daily doses of drops, tablets or lozenges.
In an effort to prevent tooth decay, fluoride was first added to the water supply in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1945. Since then, communities throughout the U.S. have debated whether to add the naturally occurring mineral to public water systems.
About two-thirds of Americans currently drink water from fluoridated community systems, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The task force last updated its recommendations on prevention of tooth decay in preschool-aged children 10 years ago.
Earlier this year, the American Dental Association recommended parents use a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste on children before they turn 2, though fluoride remains controversial in some circles amid allegations–based, medical officials say, on questionable science–that fluoride is a carcinogen and can lower children’s IQs. In 2012, New Jersey was embroiled in the controversy when it considered legislation that would require each town in the state to fluoridate its water.
Image: Baby teeth, via Shutterstock
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Wednesday, February 19th, 2014
American children are exposed to at least double the levels of chemicals that are known to affect the brain in ways that are linked with disorders including autism, ADHD, and dyslexia–all disorders that have been on the rise in recent years. Time.com reports on new research that has found radical changes in chemical exposure since 2006:
In 2006, scientists from the Harvard School of Public Health and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai identified five industrial chemicals responsible for causing harm to the brain — lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (found in electric transformers, motors and capacitors), arsenic (found in soil and water as well as in wood preservatives and pesticides) and toluene (used in processing gasoline as well as in paint thinner, fingernail polish and leather tanning). Exposure to these neurotoxins was associated with changes in neuron development in the fetus as well as among infants, and with lower school performance, delinquent behavior, neurological abnormalities and reduced IQ in school-age children.
Now the same researchers have reviewed the literature and found six additional industrial chemicals that can hamper normal brain development. These are manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Manganese, they say, is found in drinking water and can contribute to lower math scores and heightened hyperactivity, while exposure to high levels of fluoride from drinking water can contribute to a seven-point drop in IQ on average. The remaining chemicals, which are found in solvents and pesticides, have been linked to deficits in social development and increased aggressive behaviors.
The research team acknowledges that there isn’t a causal connection between exposure to any single chemical and behavioral or neurological problems — it’s too challenging to isolate the effects of each chemical to come to such conclusions. But they say the growing body of research that is finding links between higher levels of these chemicals in expectant mothers’ blood and urine and brain disorders in their children should raise alarms about how damaging these chemicals can be. The developing brain in particular, they say, is vulnerable to the effects of these chemicals, and in many cases, the changes they trigger are permanent.
“The consequence of such brain damage is impaired [central nervous system] function that lasts a lifetime and might result in reduced intelligence, as expressed in terms of lost IQ points, or disruption in behavior,” they write in their report, which was published in the journal Lancet Neurology.
They point to two barriers to protecting children from such exposures — not enough testing of industrial chemicals and their potential effect on brain development before they are put into widespread use, and the enormous amount of proof that regulatory agencies require in order to put restrictions or limitations on chemicals.
Image: Chemical pesticides, via Shutterstock
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ADHD, Autism, brain chemistry, chemicals, dyslexia, fluoride, pesticides, toxic chemicals | Categories:
Child Health, Must Read, New Research, Trends
Tuesday, February 18th, 2014
The American Dental Association is now recommending that children begin using a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste twice daily as soon as their first teeth appear. This is a change from the previous guidelines, which had suggested brushing with water until age 2, when a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste could be used. More on the new recommendation from The New York Times:
To fight the rising number of cavities in the very young, the dental group now advises getting a jump-start on prevention. However, they emphasize only the tiniest amount of fluoride toothpaste should be used to minimize the risk of mild discoloration, white spots or streaking of the teeth, a condition called fluorosis that is caused by ingesting fluoride toothpaste at a young age.
“We want to minimize the amount of fluoride consumption to reduce the risk of fluorosis while simultaneously adding a preventive tool for kids 2 and under that we haven’t recommended previously,” said Dr. Jonathan Shenkin, a spokesman for the A.D.A. and a pediatric dentist in Augusta, Me. Only a tiny amount of toothpaste should be smeared on the brush since some youngsters are likely to ingest some of the fluoride, he said.
The change comes after a systematic review of 17 studies published in The Journal of the American Dental Association this month. It concluded that scientific evidence, though limited in children under age 6 and more robust in older children, demonstrated that fluoride toothpaste is effective in controlling tooth decay, and that “the appropriate amount” should be used “by all children regardless of age.”
An early start is crucial, Dr. Shenkin said, because children with dental decay are at greater risk of developing cavities as adults. “By starting earlier, we can effectively reduce a lifetime of disease for a lot of kids.”
Dr. Man Wai Ng, the dentist in chief at Boston Children’s Hospital, applauded the new recommendation and said, “It’s a great thing for parents to know: ‘Use a tiny amount of fluoride, and brush two times a day to counter the effects of frequent snacking.’”
Most of the children she sees with tooth decay are using “a training toothpaste without fluoride,” she said.
The new A.D.A. guidelines stress that children should spit out toothpaste as soon as they are able, but not being able to spit does not preclude the use of a rice-grain-size bit of fluoride toothpaste.
Fluoride is controversial in some circles, amid allegations–based, medical officials say, on questionable science–that fluoride is a carcinogen and can lower children’s IQs. In 2012, New Jersey was embroiled in the controversy when it considered legislation that would require each town in the state to fluoridate its water.
What kind of behaviors can you expect from your growing toddler? Take our quiz to find out!
Image: Child’s toothbrush, via Shutterstock
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Thursday, March 22nd, 2012
A number of recent studies by dental groups and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention make the case that a rise in the consumption of bottled water by American children is a major factor in the simultaneous boost in tooth decay because the bottled water does not contain fluoride.
“You should brush twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste, see the dentist twice a year for fluoride treatment and get fluoride in your drinking water,” said Jonathan D. Shenkin, spokesman on pediatric dentistry for the American Dental Association. “If you’re not getting it in your drinking water, that takes out a component of the effectiveness of that triad.”
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, too, warns that “bottled water may not have a sufficient amount of fluoride, which is important for preventing tooth decay and promoting oral health.”
No question, many kids do drink bottled water. One recent study in the Archives of Pediatrics found that about 45 percent of parents give their kids only or primarily bottled water, while another in the journal Pediatric Dentistry found that nearly 70 percent of parents gave bottled water either alone or with tap water.
More than 65 percent of parents using bottled water did not know what levels of fluoride it contained, that study showed.
At the same time, tooth decay appears to affect a huge swath of the nation’s young children. About 42 percent of children ages 2 to 11 in the U.S. had cavities in their baby teeth, according to a 2007 prevalence study, the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Image: Bottle of water, via Shutterstock.
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Monday, March 5th, 2012
Parents in Chatham, New Jersey are alarmed to learn that as many as 50 children’s prescriptions for fluoride pills were accidentally switched with Tamoxifen, a powerful breast cancer drug, by a local CVS pharmacy between December 1 and February 20. CVS Caremark told The Associated Press that only a few children ingested the cancer medication, believing it to be the chewable fluoride tablet, and that those children are not likely to suffer any health effects.
From the AP:
“Fortunately, it’s very unlikely that this specific drug would cause any serious or adverse effects when used for only a short periods of time,” said Daniel Hussar, a professor with the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy at the University of the Sciences.
CVS said it had spoken with or left messages for every family whose child was dispensed a 0.5 mg fluoride prescription from its Chatham location within the past 60 days. The company issued a statement Friday that said it was “deeply sorry for the mistake that occurred,” although it did not explain how the mistake happened.
Mike DeAngelis, CVS Caremark’s director of public relations, has said that “most of the families we have spoken to did not indicate that their children received any incorrect pills.” No injuries related to the mix-up have been reported.
Officials say the two pills are similar looking but have distinctively different tastes. Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay and is usually prescribed by dentists for children, while Tamoxifen is used to treat breast cancer and blocks the female hormone estrogen.
Image: Pill bottle, via Shutterstock.
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