Posts Tagged ‘ EEG ’

Brain Pattern May Predict Autism in Young Children

Friday, June 28th, 2013

Highly interconnected networks of nerves in the brain may be a marker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that will allow researchers to identify the condition in very young children.  A new study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry has made this finding, building on research from a year ago that found a non-invasive EEG test could identify unique brain patterns in the brains of autistic 2-year-olds.  The new finding is promising for the ability of doctors to identify ASD at its earliest stages, which would allow interventions and treatments to begin as early as possible.  More from Time.com:

A highly interconnected brain could mean that signals zooming from sensory nerves to other networks become too overwhelming to parse apart and process, which researchers believe is a hallmark of the autistic brain. And in a study published in JAMA Psychiatry, Stanford University researchers report that this pattern of hyperconnectivity in some brain areas could provide a fingerprint for autism that helps doctors to recognize the condition at its earliest stages.

The scientists scanned the brains of 20 autistic children who ranged in age from 7 to 12 and also imaged 20 typically developing children of the same age for comparison. They found stronger connections within many critical brain networks in the autistic children, including those responsible for introspection, vision and movement.

They also saw more robust links in networks that help the brain to triage the flood of incoming information from both our bodies and our environment that assaults us constantly. Called the salience network, it’s responsible for determining which internal or external sensations need our immediate attention. Using a computer program that the researchers developed to make sense of the brain imaging data, they found that by mapping the salience network alone, they could accurately classify autistic or non-autistic children in their study 78% of the time — and could do so 83% of the time using data from other researchers.

“That’s wonderful,” says Kamila Markram, the Autism Project Director at the Brain Mind Institute of the EPFL, a federal technology institute in Lausanne, Switzerland, who was not associated with the research, “We must move toward biological markers for autism and not just rely on interviews and observations by people.” Markram previously published animal research suggesting that hyperconnectivity may be involved in autism.

Moreover, the more strongly connected the salience network was in autistic children, the worse symptoms they had in terms of repetitive behaviors like rocking and restricted interests such as being obsessed with computers or the periodic table of elements. The findings suggest that from an early age, children with autism develop differently from those without the condition, and that these changes may be detectable through brain imaging.

Image: Brain scans, via Shutterstock
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Study: Brain Activity Could Identify Autism In 2-Year-Olds

Wednesday, June 27th, 2012

Researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital have discovered that electroencephalography (EEG), a non-invasive test that measures brain activity, may be able to distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as early at age 2.  Time.com reports:

The researchers measured EEG patterns in 430 children with autism and 554 control subjects ages 2 to 12. Those with autism had activity patterns that consistently showed reduced connectivity between brain regions, especially in areas associated with language on the left side of the brain.

“The brain works like a series of computers and they have to hook to one another through nerves in the brain in order to connect and function together,” says study author Dr. Frank H. Duffy of the department of psychiatry at Boston Children’s Hospital. “We can estimate from EEGs how well regions connect to one another. If there is high coherence between different regions of the brain, this indicates the brain is well connected.”

The researchers eliminated children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome, focusing instead on those with ”classic” autism symptoms who had been referred for EEG by neurologists, psychiatrists or developmental pediatricians to rule out seizure disorders. “We studied the typical autistic child who is seeing a behavioral specialist. These children are hard to study and it is usually difficult to get EEG recordings from them,” says Duffy.

To get an EEG reading, children must wear a cap of electrodes that record electrical signals signifying brain activity. The research team used certain techniques to allow clean readings from the participants, such as letting the children take breaks and adjusting for behaviors like body and eye movement and muscle activity that can throw off recordings.

Image: EEG results, via Shutterstock.
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