A half century after the vaccine against measles was introduced in 1963, the life-threatening disease has been eliminated in the U.S. but remains a global threat, claiming the lives of 430 children – 18 every hour – every day. The international presence of measles is of domestic concern as well, putting families who choose not to have their children vaccinated at risk of exposure if they encounter an infected person who brought the disease from another country. More from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
In an article published on December 5 by JAMA Pediatrics, CDC’s Mark J. Papania, M.D., M.P.H., and colleagues report that United States measles elimination, announced in 2000, has been sustained through 2011. Elimination is defined as absence of continuous disease transmission for greater than 12 months. Dr. Papania and colleagues warn, however, that international importation continues, and that American doctors should suspect measles in children with high fever and rash, “especially when associated with international travel or international visitors,” and should report suspected cases to the local health department. Before the U.S. vaccination program started in 1963, measles was a year-round threat in this country. Nearly every child became infected; each year 450 to 500 people died each year, 48,000 were hospitalized, 7,000 had seizures, and about 1,000 suffered permanent brain damage or deafness.
People infected abroad continue to spark outbreaks among pockets of unvaccinated people, including infants and young children. It is still a serious illness: 1 in 5 children with measles is hospitalized. Usually there are about 60 cases per year, but 2013 saw a spike in American communities – some 175 cases and counting – virtually all linked to people who brought the infection home after foreign travel.
“A measles outbreak anywhere is a risk everywhere,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “The steady arrival of measles in the United States is a constant reminder that deadly diseases are testing our health security every day. Someday, it won’t be only measles at the international arrival gate; so, detecting diseases before they arrive is a wise investment in U.S. health security.
Image: Child getting a vaccine, via Shutterstock
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More than 9,400 children are treated each year in U.S. emergency rooms after suffering injuries in their highchairs, most often from falling out of poorly secured chairs, according to a new study published by the Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. The numbers represent a significant rise in the number of highchair-related injuries–a 22 percent jump between the years 2003 and 2010. More from US News:
Despite the fact that millions of defective highchairs have been recalled in recent years, researchers at the hospital’s Center for Injury Research and Policy found that the number of children under the age of 3 who were treated in emergency departments between 2003 and 2010 increased by 22 percent. On average, one child each hour was treated for such an injury, according to the study, published in the journal Clinical Pediatrics.
“Families may not think about the dangers associated with the use of high chairs,” said Gary Smith, director of the Center for Injury Research, in a statement. “High chairs are typically used in kitchens and dining areas, so when a child falls from the elevated height of the high chair, he is often falling head first onto a hard surface such as tile or wood flooring with considerable force.
Most often, the children seen were treated for closed head injuries, which include concussions and internal head injuries. More than one-third of the children injured (37 percent) were treated for closed head injuries.
Not only were closed head injuries the most common injury associated with highchairs, but they were also the type that saw the greatest increase between 2003 and 2010 – up nearly 90 percent, from 2,558 in 2003 to 4,789 in 2010.
Additionally, 33 percent were treated for bumps and bruises, and 19 percent were treated for cuts associated with falls from highchairs. Overall, 93 percent of the injuries involved a fall from a highchair or booster seat.
When information was available for what children were doing just before a fall from a highchair or booster seat, two-thirds of them were climbing or standing in the chair, which suggests that the chair’s safety restraints were either not being used or were ineffective.
Parents are urged to make sure their children are properly strapped into their high chairs and booster seats. If you are concerned about the safety of your highchairs, check the Parents.com Recall Finder, sign up for our Recall Alerts email, or check the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s website to see whether your model has been recalled.
Watch this video for more tips on keeping your baby safe in his high chair:
Prevent High Chair Injuries: How to Keep Your Child Safe
Plus: Find a broad selection of high chairs at Shop Parents.
Image: Baby in highchair, via Shutterstock
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Fifteen-year-old Hayley Mogul and her 9-year-old sister both extremely rare genetic disorders–so rare, that a cure isn’t even being sought by scientists–that has had severe neurological and metabolic consequences for the sisters. But their participation in cutting edge research that combines stem cell and genetic techniques may give hope to future generations. NBC News reports:
There’s no cure for their rare disorders, caused by unique genetic mutations. But for once, there’s an advantage to having conditions so rare that drug companies cannot even think of looking for a cure. The sisters are taking part in a whole new kind of experiment in which scientists are literally turning back the clock on their cells.
They’re using an experimental technique to transform the cells into embryonic form, and then growing these baby cells in lab dishes.
The goal is the get the cells to misfire in the lab in just the same way they are in Hayley’s and Bari’s bodies. It’s a new marriage of genetics and stem cell research, and represents one of the most promising applications of so-called pluripotent stem cells.
“One day these two girls will probably change the face of medicine as we know it,” said their father, Steven Mogul.
Steven and Robyn Mogul don’t understand why both their daughters ended up with the rare mutations, which cause a range of neurological and metabolic problems.
“We have been tested,” said Mogul, a 45-year-old wealth manager living in Chicago. “We don’t have any mutations, and there are no developmental issues. We have no idea how it happened. “
The girls need special schooling and physical therapy. They must wear diapers, and when they get a cold or the flu, they can develop dangerously low blood sugar. “When the kids get sick, get colds or flu, we have to get them to the hospital,” Mogul said.
Hayley, 15, has a mutation in a gene called RAI1, which can cause Smith-Magenis syndrome. The syndrome affects 1 in 25,000 people and can disturb sleep patterns, cause obesity and behavioral issues. But Hayley’s mutation is unique and puzzling. Bari, 9, has an RAI1 mutation and a similarly unique mutation in the GRIN2B gene, which can cause learning disabilities.
“Bari doesn’t talk,” Mogul said. “She walks around, she gets around and lets you know what she wants. She is eating baby food and she is drinking from bottles.”
Hayley can attend school and can read, but lacks the fine motor skills needed to write. It’s especially unusual for two children in the same family to end up with such rare, and different, mutations.
Image: DNA, via Shutterstock
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A new method of treating–and possibly even curing–severe peanut allergies is being developed and tested by researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital. More from Boston.com:
In a small study involving 13 children at high risk for having severe allergic reactions to peanuts, Boston Children’s Hospital researchers first administered an injectable asthma drug every few weeks for 12 weeks, before having the children eat peanuts, in order to dampen their immune system’s response to peanut protein. The children continued to receive the drug—called omalizumab—for another 8 weeks as they gradually ate an increasing number of peanuts.
Twelve of the children were eventually able to eat the equivalent of 10 peanuts a day even after they went off the drug, according to the findings published in the December issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Most did, however, experience allergic reactions during the first few weeks before their immune systems became desensitized to the peanut protein. Five children had moderate allergic reactions such as wheezing, nausea, and shortness of breath, and two children had more severe reactions like a full-blown asthma attack. One child dropped out of the study after experiencing nausea and vomiting from eating peanuts, which didn’t abate for several weeks.
(None of the children had side effects from omalizumab, which in rare cases can cause life-threatening allergic reactions like anaphylaxis.)
“An important goal is to prevent life-threatening allergic reactions in those who eat peanuts accidentally,” said study leader Dr. Lynda Schneider, director of the allergy program at Boston Children’s Hospital. “We’re cautiously hopeful that some will be able to include peanuts in their diet every day, but we’re not ready to call this a cure.”
Image: Peanuts, via Shutterstock
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Lee Brice, on the same weekend that he was nominated for a Grammy award for his song “I Drive Your Truck,” welcomed his second child, a son he and wife Sara have named Ryker Mobley Brice. More from PEOPLE.com:
“A week ago I didn’t think I could be any happier. I was wrong. Our brand new baby boy Ryker Mobley Brice was born healthy. My heart is full,” Brice, who is nominated for best country solo performance for “I Drive Your Truck,” writes.
“Sara is the strongest and most amazing woman I know. She did so good and he is perfect.”
The couple kept the pregnancy under wraps until September, when Brice broke the news with two snapshots of his growing family, including one cheeky picture of 4-year-old son Takoda using binoculars to search for his baby brother.
Image: Lee Brice, via Helga Esteb / Shutterstock.com
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